The LiDAR sensor is only on the 12 Pro and 12 Pro Max. In addition to aiding with augmented reality applications, the sensor also helps with speeding up autofocusing, especially in the dark. Apple says autofocus is up to 6x faster thanks to LiDAR. The sensor also enables Night mode for portrait mode photos.
MagSafe (originally featured in the original MacBooks in 2006) is meant to help optimize charging by ensuring that the wireless charger is always aligned properly to the back of the phone where the charging coil is. According to Apple, Belkin will also be developing accessories that include a car mount and dock.